Apartheid en Cuba
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    Deep roots of Cuba’s dilemma

    Deep roots of Cuba's dilemma
    Published: Sunday | September 19, 2010
    Dennis Morrison, Contributor

    The late Dr Eric Williams would have been struck by the irony that after
    52 years of the Cuban Revolution, which had been sparked in part by
    chronic unemployment in the Cuban labour force, a whopping 500,000 state
    employees are to be made redundant in short order. But this announcement
    which came less than a week after Fidel Castro's reported admission that
    Cuba's economic model no longer works would, perhaps, not have surprised

    Dr Williams' assessment of Cuban economic policy
    set out in From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean
    1492-1969 had, after all, analysed critical mistakes made in the first
    decade of the revolution, the effects of which are now blamed for the
    mass redundancies.

    International scholars have continued to document the flaws in Cuba's
    state-directed economy and in its political system, and to analyse the
    impact of the US on trade in shaping economic realities in that
    country. Despite these flaws, the system has survived sweeping changes
    in the global economy and paradigmatic shifts in ideology and the
    political economy of its former allies in Eastern Europe. Even China
    which, like Cuba, is still politically directed by the communist party,
    long ago modified its economic framework.

    It is in this international context and broad-based stagnation in the
    Cuban economy that the Raúl Castro regime is now forced to find a new
    development dynamic and to "update the Cuban economic model". No doubt,
    Cuba's economic problems, like those of many developing countries, have
    been aggravated by the global recession and steep declines in commodity
    prices in 2009. Major hurricane damage in the order of US$10 million
    that it suffered in 2008, would also have added to the distress.

    Deeply-rooted problems

    Cuba's problems, however, have deep roots in the policy failures of the
    early years of the revolution. Among the fundamental errors pointed to
    by sympathetic economists such as René Dumont and Charles Bettelheim –
    who observed policy-making in Cuba in the 1960s – was excessive
    nationalisation, including land. They expressed alarm that Cuba had
    "nationalised and centralised too much, too far, and too fast". Starting
    with land reform laws that were meant to break the stranglehold of
    American sugar companies on 75 per cent of Cuba's arable land, the Fidel
    Castro regime soon found itself up against powerful US retaliation.

    This confrontation released political dynamics that heightened
    anti-Americanism and helped set in train wide-scale expropriation of the
    private economy. The Castro regime and Cuba thereafter were on a
    radically different ideological path from that which Fidel outlined in
    the Declaration of the Sierra Maestra on July 12, 1957. As Eric Williams
    noted, whereas Castro's initial political programme and the 1957
    Declaration were typical of Caribbean nationalists, the conflict with
    the US over land reform changed the course of the revolution and the
    ideological stance of Fidel himself. This is summed up by Herbert
    Matthews, Castro's great American adviser and 'friendliest critic' thus:
    "Communism was not a cause of the Cuban Revolution; it was a result."

    Nearly 50 years later, Raúl Castro must confront the
    consequences of excessive nationalisation that is reflected in the
    reality, where about 95 per cent of the 5.1 million Cuban labour force
    is employed by the government. By his own estimate, the Cuban state
    supports businesses, production enterprises and services with inflated
    payrolls, in a system where up to one million workers are superfluous.

    This state-directed economy, built on the wholesale adoption of
    Soviet-style central planning, was warned against by Dumont and other
    Marxist economists who identified it as one of the "socialist errors"
    that Cuba was committing as it repeated "the cycle of errors as the
    USSR, starting from theories abandoned in their country of origin". The
    Cuban economy still operates as an inefficient bureaucratic system, long
    after those of the former Soviet Union and its East European allies

    Cubans expecting too much

    Another reality facing the Raúl Castro regime, which has been the
    subject of frequent comments by him, is that Cubans expect too much from
    the government which provides free , free care, as well
    as heavy subsidies for , , and basic . Again, the
    policies on which this was based hark back to the days when
    revolutionary fervour ran high and Fidel declared in 1967 that his aim
    was "to give free sugar, free coffee, and free food" to the Cuban
    population. Rather than money as the incentive for work as under
    capitalism or as "practised in Russia or China", the incentive under the
    Cuban system of Marxism/Leninism would be the guarantee of a decent life
    in which workers and their children would be educated, cared for,
    housed, and fed.

    British development economist Dudley Seers and his team, which included
    Chilean economist Andrés Bianchi, emphasised this as one of the serious
    errors of the revolution, causing the allocation of too many resources
    to social as opposed to economic investments
    . Its distorting effect on the development of the economy and
    contribution to low productivity are manifested in the severity of the
    adjustments that must now be made in the workforce.

    The dilemma in which the Cuban government is caught is how to reform its
    development model while preserving the undoubted gains of the revolution
    in health, education, medical technology, and other industrial fields,
    as well as social discipline and social solidarity. Cuba's contribution
    in assisting other developing countries to free themselves from colonial
    domination is also notable, as evidenced by Nelson Mandela's recognition
    of its role in the struggle to beat back the aggression of the apartheid
    South African regime against countries in Southern Africa.

    Dennis Morrison is an economist. Feedback may be sent to


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